Schengen Agreement History

The original Schengen area came into being in June 1985, when five European countries signed an agreement in a small town called Schengen in Luxembourg, aboard the ship Princess Marie-Astrid, in Moselle. Schengen is located on the border with Germany and France. The Schengen area originally had its legal basis outside the European Economic Community at the time, having been created by a subset of the Community`s Member States by two international agreements: the Schengen Agreement paved the way for the creation of the Schengen visa. Although this is not part of the initial provisions of the agreement, visitors from the fifteen aforementioned countries now only need a visa for all. The Schengen visa can allow non-members of the European Union to travel freely through the countries participating in the program. Visa liberalisation negotiations between the EU and the Western Balkans (excluding Kosovo) started in the first half of 2008 and were completed in 2009 (for Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia) and 2010 (for Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina). Before the total abolition of visas, the Western Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia) had signed in 2008 “visa facilitation agreements” with the Schengen countries. Visa facilitation agreements were then intended to reduce waiting times, reduce visa fees (including free visas for certain categories of travellers) and reduce red tape. However, in practice, the new procedures have proved to be longer, more cumbersome and more costly, and many people have complained that it is easier to obtain visas before the entry into force of the facilitation agreements. [290] [291] [292] From 2015[Update], Andorra, Monaco and San Marino negotiated an Association Agreement with the EU. Andorra`s ambassador to Spain, Jaume Gayt├ín, said he hoped the agreement would contain provisions to make the Schengen agreement associate member states.

[114] Before concluding an agreement with a neighbouring state, the Schengen state must obtain the agreement of the European Commission, which must confirm that the draft agreement complies with the regulation. The agreement can only be concluded if the neighbouring state at least grants reciprocal rights to EEA and Swiss nationals residing on the Schengen side of the border region and accepts the repatriation of persons who abuse the border agreement. However, certain third-country nationals are allowed to stay in the Schengen area for more than 90 days without having to apply for an extended residence visa. For example, France does not require citizens of Andorra, Monaco, San Marino and Vatican City to apply for a visa for an extended stay. [252] In addition, Article 20(2) of the Agreement implementing the Schengen Agreement provides that this remains applicable “in exceptional circumstances” and bilateral agreements concluded by certain signatory States with other countries before the entry into force of the Convention. As a result, for example, New Zealand nationals can stay up to 90 days in each of the Schengen countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland) that had already concluded bilateral visa waiver agreements with the New Zealand government before the entry into force of the agreement, without the New Zealand government having if an extended stay visa needs to be applied for. However, for travel to other Schengen countries, the 90 days apply over a period of 180 days. [253] [254] [255] [256] [257] [258] [259] [260] [261] [262] [263] [Excessive citations] Authorisations are issued with a validity period of between one and five years and allow residence in the border area for up to three months. . . .